Newcastle Timeline

c122AD - The Romans establish Pons Aelius (a fort and bridge) on the banks of the Tyne – creating a fortress that would later become Newcastle

122AD - 126AD - Hadrian's Wall is built

399AD - The Romans leave Britain

1080 - A 'new castle' is built on the site of the Roman Fort by Robert Curthose, who is the son of William the Conqueror. It is from this castle that the city takes its name

1139 - 1157 - The town falls into Scottish hands

1172 - The city's castle is rebuilt in stone

1248 - The old Tyne Bridge is destroyed in a fire

1265 - A tax is levied to start building the city's walls

1539 - Under the reign of Henry VIII the town's five friaries and other religious institutions are closed as the King severs links with the church in Rome

1646 - Charles I is held as a prisoner in Newcastle during the English Civil War. Despite this, the town's leaders were sympathetic to the Royalist cause

1649 - Gray's Chorographia is published

1650 - It is recorded that 14 witches were executed in Newcastle

1741 - Thomlinson library first opened to the public

1771 - On November 17 the Great Flood destroys the medieval bridge over the Tyne

1772 - John Scott elopes with Elizabeth Surtees, daughter of an influential town banker. She escapes from the first floor window of her father’s house with the help of a ladder, provided by John. The pair is married in Scotland

1797 - Local artist Thomas Bewick publishes the first volume of his acclaimed "History of British Birds"

1823 - Robert Stephenson opens engineering works in the city

1835 - 1839 - Modern Newcastle begins to take shape as the city centre is re-vamped in the classical style by builder Richard Grainger and architect John Dobson

1838 - Grey's Monument is erected in honour of the Northumberland-born Charles Grey who became Prime Minister in 1830 and in 1832 steered through the Great Reform Bill

1847 - William George Armstrong sets up W.G. Armstrong and Co

1853 - A severe outbreak of Cholera kills around 1500 in the city

1854 - The Great Fire of Newcastle. Started in Gateshead, the blaze spread across the river killing at least 50 people and destroying much of the city’s quayside

1862 - Tyneside anthem 'The Blaydon Races' is first sung by entertainer Geordie Ridley in Balmbra Music Hall. It celebrates a horse racing meeting held on an island in the middle of the Tyne

1876 - Swing Bridge is built

1880 - At the same time as Thomas Edison is inventing the light bulb, Joseph Swan demonstrates his incandescent electric light bulb at the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society. The pair eventually team up to form The Edison & Swan United Electric Company

1882 - Newcastle officially becomes a city and St Nicholas’ church becomes its Cathedral

1884 - The first steam turbine is patented on Tyneside by Charles Parsons

1928 - Tyne Bridge is opened by King George V

1941 - Newcastle suffers air raids during the Second World War. On the 1st of September 100 bombs fall on Newcastle and its suburbs, killing 50 people and injuring around 200

1955 - Newcastle United wins the FA cup. It was to be their last major domestic title of the century

1980 - The city's metro service begins

2000 - The NewcastleGateshead Initiative is created to promote the city and its regenerated quayside. During the previous decade, the city's waterfront witnessed dramatic changes as investment poured into the area. The resulting prosperity attracted more businesses, bars, restaurants and arts projects to the area, helping to turn Newcastle into a tourist destination and cultural centre